What you need to know about bunions

Bunions manifest as a visible sign of an advancing bone disorder, characterized by the emergence of a bony protrusion at the lower end of the joint of the big toe.

The medical term employed for bunions is “hallux valgus,” a condition arising due to a structural anomaly in the bones of the foot and toes, predominantly affecting the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. Consequently, the alignment of the feet becomes compromised.

Typically, bunions impact the bone of the big toe, causing it to angle towards the second toe instead of maintaining a straight orientation.

As a result, the big toe exerts pressure against its adjacent counterpart, leading to the protrusion of the joint.

While bunions are frequently observed in adults, adolescents can also encounter them.

They may develop due to an inherent bone issue in the foot structure. Interestingly, some individuals possess hallux valgus without experiencing any symptoms. Although ill-fitting shoes that compress the toes can amplify the likelihood of symptoms, they are not a direct cause of bunions.

It’s worth noting that bunions can also materialize close to the base of the pinky toe rather than the big toe, and these are referred to as bunionettes or “tailor’s bunions.”

This article delves into the origins and indicators of bunions, as well as potential courses of treatment.


The hallmark indication of a bunion is the emergence of a protrusion that develops at the lower part of the big toe. Such formations can also arise at the base of the little toe. In such instances, a medical professional would diagnose it as a bunionette, often referred to as a “tailor’s bunion.”

Additional manifestations associated with bunions might encompass:

  • Discomfort and tenderness
  • Numbness
  • A sensation of burning
  • Swelling around the joint of the implicated toe
  • Augmented thickness of skin at the base of the affected toe
  • Hardened skin beneath the foot
  • Redness
  • Elevation of a bump at the foundation of the involved toe
  • Presence of corns or calluses
  • Limited mobility within the affected toe